Thursday, January 23, 2020

Christianity, Reform and Freedom in Method Essay -- Religion History E

I feel like I need to begin my methodological introduction with graffiti. Graffiti that says: "Bercovitch Bites," or "Foster Rules," or even "Stop Elitist Historicists." Nothing particularly original -- just a few key phrases that capture the frustration I have felt while researching New Historicism and more particularly, its application to texts. Somehow, graffiti -- the unscholarly domain of angry teenagers armed with cans of spray paint -- echoes my reaction to the scholars in this field who seem to be writing only for other scholars, thus excluding those of us who, fascinated with the ideas expressed, would like to learn about the method and topic by simply picking up a book or article. As I understand it, the whole idea of New Historicist criticism is to enlighten the readers of a text further about that text. Enlighten, educate, teach or inform -- however you put it -- this kind of criticism should be inclusive, not exclusive. The heavy use of jargon and obscure references by t hese critics serves as a "locked gate" that only allows those with the proper credentials a "key" to get in. Within the context of the text I have chosen (A Narrative of the Life and Travels of Mrs. Nancy Prince, by Nancy Prince) this elitist approach seems incongruous simply because of the facts surrounding its author and publication. This is a text written by a primarily self-educated woman who felt very strongly about using her knowledge and abilities in a "hands-on" manner to help and "enlighten" others. Ultimately, she wrote about her experiences to put food on her table, not to impress her colleagues. In any case, for the purposes of this paper, I will attempt to explain what I think New Historicism is and how I intend to use the theories beh... ...iticism. Online. 5 April, 1998. Available: http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/entries/new_historicism.html Cogan, Frances. All-American Girl: The Ideal of Real Womanhood in Mid-Nineteenth Century America. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1989. Epstein, Leslie. The Politics of Domesticity: Women, Evangelism and Temperance in Nineteenth Century America. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 1981. Howe, Daniel. "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North during the Second Party System." The Journal of American History 77 (March 1991): 1216-1239. Newton, Judith. "History as Usual? Feminism and the 'New Historicism.'" The New Historicism. Ed. H. Aram Veeser. New York: Routledge, 1989. 152. Prince, Nancy. A Black Woman's Odyssey through Russia and Jamaica: The Narrative of Nancy Prince. New York: Markus Wiener Publishing, 1990.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Essay

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study The Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography to the Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child prostitution as a commercial sexual exploitation of children whereby a child sells his or her body for sexual activities in return for remuneration or any other form of benefit provided to the prostitute or to another person (United Nations General Assembly, 2000). According to worldwide estimations by the International Labor Organization, out of the 12.3 million people victim to forced labor, 1.39 million are victims of commercial sexual exploitation, 40-50% of who are children (ILO, 2004). Nowadays, we have an increasing rate of child prostitution that is still considered as the worst form of child labor in Asia. UNICEF estimates that 1 million children are lured into sex trade in Asia every year. These children are exploited by local men and foreign tourists having an average of 5 to 10 clients per day, generating $5 billion per year wh erein 40% were sold by parents and 15% by their relatives (Willis, 2002). Japan and South Korea had been two of many Asian countries that currently face the problem of child prostitution. Together with its increasing trend, countries like Japan and Korea have been continually making its effort in solving this problem with a common goal in reducing and in a long run eliminate commercial sexual exploitation of children to protect their rights, welfare and create a better future for upcoming generations. 1.2 Statement of the Problem This study is a comparative analysis on child prostitution in Japan and South Korea. This will provide data on the causes and forms of child prostitution within these countries and the laws and protocols implemented in both countries to fight against child prostitution. Moreover, this paper gears to answer some core questions: 1. What are the primary causes of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea? 2. What are the different forms of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea? 3. What are the laws and protocols signed in solution to fight against child prostitution in Japan and South Korea? Was it able to address the problems regarding child prostitution? 1.3Significance of the Study This study will give way for the analysis in  the difference on the condition of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea. In addition to that this would be able to differentiate how Japan and South Korea face this common problem of child prostitution that in turn will lay an overview of the prevalent obstacle almost all of the countries is facing and battling nowadays. This would lead to the identification of several factors that makes child prostitution very prevalent these days that is very important to be able to address these issues to secure children’s rights and welfare. This would identify specific actions and efforts of the government in both countries to solve child prostitution issues in their respective places that would somehow extend some concern towards the identification of important factors that is needed to be considered in solving this particular dilemma not only in the studied places but also to other countries as well. This study aims to lay possible strategies that must be implemented in other countries to solve this current problem regarding child prostitution. 1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study The researcher aspire to have a comparative analysis of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea as a requirement on Political Science 60- Introduction to Comparative Government and Politics under Prof. Marilou F. Siton-N anaman and the Department of Political Science, Mindanao State University-Institute of Technology. This paper limits its study within the countries mentioned and this study is set to answer the ahead mentioned core questions pertaining to both countries involved. The study underwent a month of data gathering using books, newspaper and reliable internet sources such as e-books. Online sources for data were primarily used. 1.5Conceptual FrameworkCHILD PROSTITUTION JAPAN SOUTH KOREA CAUSES CAUSES FORMS FORMS LAWS LAWS IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION EFFECTS EFFECTS Figure 1 – Conceptual Diagram of Child Prostitution in Japan and South Korea  Child prostitution in countries like Japan and South Korea are caused by several major factors that make it more prevalent these days. In order to take action with the said dilemma, the identification of the forms of child prostitution is very vital in order to formulate and develop laws that would identify grounds and address cases that violate the rights of the children. Through proper implementation of these laws child prostitution are being reduced to secure children’s welfare and rights. 1.6 Operational Definition of Terms Prostitution- the act or practice of engaging in promiscuous sexual relations especially for money or other benefits  Remuneration- payment or compensation received for services or employment  Sexual Exploitation- the use of a child for sexual purposes in exchange for cash or in-kind favors between a customer, intermediary or agent and others who profit from the trade in children for these purposes—parent, family member, procurer, teacher Forced Labor- is any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form punishment. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, related studies and previous works pertaining to child prostitution in countries that discusses relevant major information related  to the comparative study of Japan and South Korea are discussed. The demand for sex drives child sex trafficking globally, while poverty, domestic violence and abuse, discrimination and the desire for a better life make children vulnerable. Children are especially vulnerable to being trafficked because they are often poorly educated, easy to overpower and easy to convince that they must do what an adult tells them to do. Children may also be in a position where they believe they must help to support their families and may be sold or sent abroad by family members to do so. Street children, children in refugee camps, children whose family and community life has been disrupted and do not have someone to look out for them are all especially vulnerable to human trafficking and prone to sex labor (http://ecpat.net/EI/Publications/Trafficking/Factsheet_South_Korea.pdf) Date Accessed: October13, 2011. According to the study conducted by the International Labor Organization through its Action against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children Programs in Thailand, Philippines, Colombia , Costa Rica and Nicaragua in 2001 that poverty is one contributing factor to the sexual exploitation of children and that is an increasing reality in both Latin America and Asia (ILO_IPEC, 2001). A series of Asian economic crises in the closing years of the 20th century have had a clear impact on the numbers of children being exploited both for labor in general and sexual exploitation in particular. Children living or working on the streets, young domestic workers and child workers in sweatshops and transportation sector—all â€Å"placed† in these vulnerable situations as a multi-faceted response to poverty – are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and exploitation. In many countries including Thailand and Philippines, the movement of children from villages and rural areas to cities in the guise of earning money for the family is a major factor in trafficking and sexual exploitation (Thematic Evaluation on Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children, 2001). ILO-IPEC research report of August 1999 indicated that there was an increase of 20 percent in the number of minors working in prostitution in Thailand between January 1998 and January 1999. This coincides with the aftermath of the economic crises in Thailand (International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour,2001). This report has already touched the importance of trying to develop  qualitative indicators and impact measures for the specific needs of evaluating trafficking and sex exploitation-related programming. Child prostitution and pornography is viewed as an increasing serious problem in Japan. Shihoko Fujiwara, representative of Polaris Project Japan, a nonprofit organization that provides support to children and women who are victims of sexual abuse and trafficking, stated that child pornography and child prostitution cases detected in Japan exceeds 5,000 annually, and the number is rising year by year. â€Å"One of the reasons for the increase,† she said, â€Å"is that a growing number of children have become involved in the business through the widespread use of the Internet† (Shimbun, 2010). In 1998, Interpol estimated that nearly 80% of the world’s Internet-based child pornography websites originated in Japan. Although the Japanese government passed legislation in 1999 that effectively cracked down on child pornography providers, Japan continues to be a major producer and patron of child sex tourism. In a recent press conference to announce the release of the State Department’s annual Trafficking in Persons Report which analyzes human trafficking worldwide and documents governments’ responses to it, Secretary of State Colin Powell and Director John Miller both expressed their particular disappointment with Japan – a country which, despite the immense resources available to it, was failing to take appropriate steps to end child sex tourism and other forms of human exploitation. As one of the largest economies in the world, Director Miller censured, Japan’s lackluster response is impermissible: â€Å"Japan does not comply with the minimum standards. We believe that there has been a tremendous gap in Japan that has a huge problem with slavery — particularly sex slavery — a tremendous gap between the size of the problem and the resources and efforts devoted to addressing the problem (Jordan,2004).† The Trafficking in Persons Report of 2010 indicates that the men of South Korea create demand for child sex tourism in their surrounding countries. Technology such as the internet has helped increase accessibility of child sex tourism in the Republic of Korea. Some South Korean men arrange for children from the Philippines, Thailand, and China as sources of sex (Trafficking in Persons Report, 2010). Prostitution in South Korea is a strictly controlled illegal industry, but according to The Korea Women’s  development Institute, th e sex trade in Korea was estimated to amount to 14 trillion Korean won ($13 billion) in 2007, roughly 1.6 percent of the nation’sgross domestic product. The number of prostitutes dropped by 18 percent to 269,000 during the same period. The sex trade involved some 94 million transactions in 2007, down from 170 million in 2002. The amount of money traded for prostitution was over 14 trillion won, much less than 24 trillion won in 2002 (Prostitution in South Korea, 2010). In 2003, the Korean Institute of Criminology announced that 260,000 women, or 1 of 25 of young Korean women, may be engaged in the sex industry. However, the Korean Feminist Association alleged that from 514,000 to 1.2 million Korean women participate in the prostitution industry. In addition, a similar report by the Institute noted that 20% of men in their 20s pay for sex at least four times a month, with 358,000 visiting prostitutes daily (Stiephensoun, 2010). CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter summarizes and explains the methods used in the research which includes its design, setting and treatment of data.  3.1Research Design The research design used for this study is the descriptive-comparative design. The researcher employed a descriptive type of research using books and reliable online sources. This paper also employs a comparative analysis between the two countries being studied. 3.2Research Setting This comparative analysis study focuses in two countries namely: Japan and South Korea. Both countries are located in Asia. The two countries have certain distinction in economic status but both are considered as two of the countries in Asia that has a high rate of child prostitution. Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, People’s Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The country is of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are HonshÃ… «, HokkaidÃ… , KyÃ… «shÃ… « and Shikoku. Japan has the world’s tenth-largest population, with about 127 million people. South Korea is located on the southern half of the Korean peninsula and lies in a temperate climate region with a predominantly mountainous terrain. It is neighbor to China to the west, Japan to the east and North Korea to the north. Its capital, Seoul, is the second largest metropolitan city in the world. South Korea has a population of over 48 million, making it the third most densely populated country in the world after Bangladesh and Taiwan. 3.3 Data Gathering Procedures The method used in data gathering was mainly book searching and online surfing. The data being gathered by the researcher are books with ISBN, books in PDF form with an author and websites form the internet, published on 2000-2011. Research was done from the month of July 2011-August 2012. 3.4 Treatment of Data The researcher purely gathered data from printed books, pdfs, e-books and online source. This research paper is a comparative study, has a qualitative presentation of data and descriptive type of analysis. CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS This chapter will discuss the condition of child prostitution problem in Japan and South Korea, identify and differentiate the strategies they are using to address and solve this problem. Furthermore, this chapter attempts to stress some analysis on child prostitution of the ahead mentioned countries. The discussions will be classified according to certain topics. 4.1Primary Causes of Child prostitution The principal cause of child prostitution is poverty, however extreme poverty isn’t a reason in itself, it operates in function of the imposition of other factors such as; economic, social and ethnic despair, discrimination against women and girls, massive urbanization, disintegration of the family and of traditional community systems, ignorance on the part of the majority of parents, commercialization of the status of individuals and more (How to fight the prostitution of minors, 2001). Japan, known to be one of the most developed  countries is a destination place for traffi cking women and children for sexual purposes. Children from Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand are being transported to Japan to work as sex slaves (http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/japan) July 29,2011. In the other side, South Korea has also become a source, transit and destination country for women trafficked for sexual purposes from China, the Philippines, Russia and Thailand; it also experiences internal trafficking of Korean children. South Korean children are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation in the United States, Japan, Hong Kong, Guam, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Western Europe (Lee, 2005). Poverty is being identified as one of the major factors of child prostitution between countries. Japan and South Korea, both being considered as developed countries was more of being receiving regions in terms of child prostitution. Children mainly females mostly from neighboring developing countries such as Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and etc. are being brought to Japan to work in different entertainment bars. A very common factor other than poverty that makes child prostitution prevalent nowadays is the presence of internet which is very accessible anywhere and anytime. Thousand of sites catering sexual services from women and children are found to be growing rapidly creating a very harmful dynamic industry that contributes to the big problem both countries are facing. 4.2Different Forms of Child prostitution In Japan, matchmaking or dating websites have become a well-known channel for commercial sexual exploitation of children in Japan. Many underage Japanese schoolgirls fall prey to ‘enjokosai’ (‘compensated dating’) by using ‘deaikei’ websites: through which they can make their contact details available, and use pagers, computers and mobile phones to arrange ‘dates’ with customers who are older and often married. Research has shown that many such girls do not engage in ‘enjokosai’ out of poverty, but rather to be able to purchase brand name clothes, bags, shoes, mobile phones, etc., which, according to them, boosts their self-esteem. They often come from dysfunctional families or experience problems at school (Liddy,2006). The form of child prostitution in Japan differs from that found in other East Asian countries since poverty is not  only the overriding factor. Child pornography is a notable problem. Japan is the most biggest producer of pornography in the world and the Parliament had refused a law banning the production of child pornography, citing â€Å"business reasons† (Antaseeda,1998). According to the Asia Pacific Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in Asia in 1996 the sex industry accounts for 1% of the Gross National Product and equals the defense budget in Japan. If matchmaking and pornographic websites are proven to be popular in Japan, in South Korea Saunas and Tea Houses are the main places of child prostitution. Serious intention to solve child prostitution should have banned all the pornographic sites and matchmaking dating sites long time ago. Conducting symposiums to teachers and parents in order to monitor the daily internet content their child or student had been grasping is a must. They could filter those sites with sexually suggestive content. Entertainment bars, saunas and tea houses that cater sex trade should be raided regularly by assigned proper government agencies. The biggest problem is that the business men that run this sex trade around the country are also the people behind the powerful illegal groups within Japan and South Korea. Even regular government police should be active enough to know and act when they notice something illegal going on when they do rounds on places at night. There are many ways to solve child prostitution; it just has to entail sincerity in implementation and consistency in acting against the problem. 4.3Laws and Protocols to fight Child prostitution In Japan, Law Punishing Acts Related to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and for Protecting Children and its Supplementary Provision, 1999, 90 revised in 2004.Articles 4 to 7 punish acts related to child prostitution and child pornography. Trafficking of children for prostitution or pornography is punished under Article 8 with one to ten years’ imprisonment (Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Japan,1999). In 2006, the Internet Association Japan, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication, the National Police Agency and information technology (IT) experts collaborated to draft guidelines on operating a hotline. The Internet Hotline Centre provides the public the opportunity to report illegal or harmful information found on the internet (Internet Association Japan, 2006). Japanese law now prohibits engaging in, facilitating, and/or soliciting the prostitution of a child; consistent with international law, a child is defined as a person under 18 years o f age.(Law on Punishing Acts related to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and on Protecting Children, 1999). According to the 2003 Deai Kei Site Regulation Law,40 minors are prohibited from accessing ‘deai-kei’ websites (matchmaking websites that facilitate prostitution of children), however no penalties apply. The adults who send communications for this purpose are fined, up to one million yen (approx. US$8,550). Children are usually referred to a Family Court for counselling and protective measures, according to the provisions of the Juvenile Law. After the Deai Kei Site Regulation Law was enacted, access to the ‘deai-kei’ websites and obvious calls for compensated dating, especially those made by children, were drastically reduced for a while; but more disguised soliciting calls have appeared since (Ikemura,2005). A Cybercrime Task Force division was established in 2004 to improve action against online child pornography and online crime. Working in cooperation with the Office for Juvenile Protection, the Task Force acts as the contact point for international cooperation, advises the local police on investigations, prepares draft laws/amendments and policies on information technologies security and raises public awareness on the issue (National Police Agency of Japan,2005). In Korea, child protection issues are handled by the National Youth Commission, which has set up a number of committees to coordinate action against CSEC( Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children), comprising both government agencies and NGOs. An example is the Committee on Combating the Sexual Exploitation of Children. In South Korea, many NGOs working on children’s rights rely on state funding to operate and their financial dependence on the government has prevented them from engaging in a more critical dialogue regarding the actions that need to be taken. In 2004, The South Korean government passed an anti-prostitution law, prohibition of prostitution in South Korea, made it illegal to buy or sell women. South Korea brought in a tough anti-prostitution law in 2004, punishing clients with fines and throwing pimps in prison. In 2007, courts prosecuted 35,000 clients, 2.5 times higher than the number of those who were caught buying sex in 2003 (Stiephensoun, 2010). South Korea developed a National Plan of Action on  Children, which is part of the Five-Year Social and Economic Development Plan (1998–2002)12 and the Five-Year Basic Plan forYouth Protection (2002–2006), which tackles crimes against children, including commercial sexual exploitation(National Youth Commission,2005). In March 2004, the Task Force for the Elimination of Prostitution completed the Sex Trafficking Prevention Plan, which includes measures to protect the rights of victims of forced prostitution and to tackle, through various routes, the facilitation of prostitution (for instance, through the use of the Internet and mobile phones). The Task Force introduced the‘John School’ system, where men who have solicited prostitutes (or are suspected of having done so) participate in rehabilitation programmes instead of receiving a criminal sentence (Jeong, Bong-Hyup,2005). The Illegal and Harmful Contents Report Centre – an independent legal institution that deliberates on reported illegal and harmful Internet content – cooperates with the National Police Agency, National Youth Commission, NGOs, Internet service providers and foreign organizations (Internet 119 Website, 2005). The Republic of Korea ratified the Act on Protection of Youth from Sexual Exploitation. This law defines â€Å"youth exploited obscene materials† as forms of pictures, such as film images, video, computer, or other communications media â€Å"with the appearance of youth,† and including sexual acts (The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights,2006) Both countries have successfully formulated series of laws and protocols in order to act against rampant child prostitution. Japan and South Korea together with its government and non-governmental offices conducted successful conferences in order to draft laws that would possibly cure the problem on child prostitution. Looking into the deeper perspective, identifying the problem and formulating a plan on how to solve a certain social and economic issue are only the first steps to the real fight against child prostitution. Even a particular country formulated thousands of polices for a social or economic problem, if none of those polices or laws was implemented in an effective way then it would waste the whole effort laid to create those policies. Hence, the success of formulated laws depends not on the number of laws being formulated but on how it is truly and effectively implemented and the effects on those policies in a certain  country or society. Japan made its serious efforts of trying to eradicate child prostitution by raising public awareness by having symposiums and local and international conferences. Japan shared information and developed practical regional measures through the Bali Process, and hosted â€Å"The International Symposium on Measures to Prevent the Commercial and Sexual Exploitation of Children in Southeast Asia† in 2003 and many more. Japan integrated international cooperation by supporting projects under the United Nations that includes having such interagency collaborations and institutional arrangements with government organizations like the National Police Agency and Ministry of Foreign Affairs in conducting investigations and took administrative measures for them to more effectively trac e illegal groups that runs bars and entertainment businesses on child prostitution. Japan also stressed out the protection of child prostitution victims by conducting a specific program which gives them shelter and protection. Government organizations contact private shelter to cater the needs of the victims and the government communicates with the country and return these victims to safe return in their respective areas (Paredes-Maceda,2006). By the end of 2008, the Government of Japan had demonstrated increasing commitment to take effective action against trafficking and child prostitution in Japan as a destination country. A watershed was the adoption in December 2008 of the National Plan of Action against Trafficking and Child prostitution. Other announced measures, including the tightening of visa controls and support for the repatriation of victims, may also lead to more controls against trafficking and child prostitution and to improved protection and rehabilitation of victims in their countries of origin (Jordan,2008). According to the CATW Fact Book, Kyodo News in 1998 trafficking and child prostitution laws exist but not enforced. In South Korea, government and non-government organizations as well went hand in hand in banning as much as possible all the pornographic sites. Even sites with suggestive content were banned. Though as recently as 2001 the government received low marks on the issue, in recent years the government has made significant strides in its enforcement efforts. Child trafficking was outlawed and penalties for prostitution increased; the 2004 Act on the Prevention of the Sex Trade and Protection of its Victims was passed,  toughening penalties for traffickers, ending deportation of victims, and establishing a number of shelters for victims. As of 2005, there were 144 people serving jail time for human trafficking (Scofield, 2004). Japan and Korea extended its efforts in solving child prostitution by collaborating through international organizations like the United Nations, as well as local governmental and nongovernmental agencies, but there had been a great discrepancy in the number of arrested individuals compared to the number of people that truly engages to the sex industry. The number of people that engages to child prostitution in Japan alone from entertainment bars, matchmaking websites to porn sites are counted as more than a hundred thousand employers with illegal child victims yet the number of individuals that are caught every year was only a little more than a hundred often times little less than a hundred, that also goes in Korea, there are a lot of people that is involve in child prostitution but the number of imprisoned employers are far little compared to the original number of involve individuals in child prostitution. In addition to that, as mentioned above Japan may have formulated laws and policies but it is rather suggested than imposed. It means whether the citizens follow or not the said law they wouldn’t be directly responsible for it, thus, the laws wouldn’t serve its ultimate purpose on solving the problem of child prostitution. Based on the gathered data, the two countries differed on the level of how they implement laws. Korea is observed to be more empowered and strict in implementing laws against child prostitution. Meanwhile, Japan also considers a lot of factors in implementing the laws. Japan is known to promote more the idea of growing population in solution to its current trend of decreasing population within years. Hence, as a realization we must take into consideration first wider contributing factors on looking how a country face and manage certain problems. Both countries successfully decreased the rate of child prostitution within years with its respective programs and policies. They have enforced laws and strategies that is designed not only to solve a particular problem but also to consider other related factors. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1CONCLUSIONS As shown by the data and information gathered, it shows that the main root of child prostitution in Japan and South Korea is poverty that leads to unavailability of quality education for children and the urge to work in order to provide their own families daily income for basic necessities in everyday living. In both countries, Japan and South Korea, children were taken from different countries like Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Russia, China and other countries to work on the sex trade industry. Most of them are illegally trafficked from different neighboring countries in order to seek work. The wide use of internet also is a considered as a growing concern in dealing with child prostitution. There are different forms of child prostitution; from pornographic sites and matchmaking sites, child pornography, exploitation through saunas, tea houses and entertainment bars. In Japan and South Korea, there are a lot of laws formulated and signed in order to battle against the problem re garding child prostitution. Governments collaborated with international organizations such as the United Nations as well as nongovernmental and governmental local offices to effectively implement the laws created that would solve the problem regarding child prostitution. Japan and South Korea differs on the level on implementation on their policies. In Japan, the formulated laws are more suggested than imposed; while in South Korea they observe stricter rules and limitations entailed with higher penalties and responsibilities. Since South Korea was able to more effectively implement their policies compared to Japan their rate for child prostitution through years is going lower than of Japan. It might not solve immediately the problem regarding child prostitution but both countries had been successful in lowering their rates in child prostitution. Looking into the deeper perspective, efforts to eliminate child prostitution must entail proper implementation and assessment to provide an accurate picture of the situation so that effective policies and programs can be developed and appropriate solutions be enforced. In the other side, eliminating child prostitution may not solve the problem but may also lead to a more big dilemma as children may transfer to other activities that are just as harmful or perhaps more harmful work condition in order to still seek ways for living to be able to provide their own families basic necessities. 5.2Recommendations Having known through this study that proper implementation of laws plays a big role for a success  of a policy. The researcher would like to open some points for further study regarding with more appropriate laws be formulated in order to protect the interests and welfare of poor children who are always the victim of sex labor and also give way for a better procedure and methods in implementing such formulated laws for it to serve its ultimate purpose and since poverty is seen in this study as the primary cause of child prostitution the researcher would like to further suggest of creating or formulating programs in where the children or the youth would be appropriately given the equal chance to be given quality education for them to be informed with their own rights to avoid abuse. They should implement enforcement to continue to improve efforts against child trafficking, especially to strengthen their ability to identify child victims of trafficking in sexual exploitation and ensure investigation and prosecution of traffickers. Provide training to law enforcement, prosecutors and judges on th e issue of commercial sexual exploitation. Hence, there would be a need to conduct further researches on child trafficking for sexual purposes to identify the scope of the problem, current trends and provide information on traffickers and at-risk groups or victims – this information will strengthen prevention and awareness. In addition, data collected should be disaggregated between children and adults and must include information on the child’s age, nationality and possible background information. The Agenda for Action against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children provides a detailed framework and categories of actions to be taken by governments in partnership with civil society organizations and other relevant actors for combating commercial sexual crimes against children. Broadly, these actions are focused on: 1) Coordination and Cooperation; 2) Prevention; 3) Protection; 4) Recovery, Rehabilitation and Reintegration; and 5) Child Participation. The Agenda for Action is thus the formal and guiding structure used by governments that have adopted it and committed to work against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (National Women’s Education Centre, 2005). Consequently, child prostitution may be reduced if there would be changes in economic development that would raise family incomes and living standards, every state as much as possible must provide widespread, affordable, required and relevant education, formulation and proper implementation of anti- child prostitution laws and most of all the need to change the public attitude  toward children that would elevate the view on the importance of educating the youth and giving also the importance of their individual rights for future generations to come.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Value of Gender and How it Represents the Body in Society

In order to answer the question I would like to explain in brief the value of gender and the ways it represents the body in the society. The term â€Å"Gender â€Å"and â€Å"Race â€Å"is by now used so frequently in academic discussions. While sex differences are rooted in biology how we come to understand and perform gender is based on culture. As it is said by ( Byers Dell ) that we always view culture â€Å" as a process through which people circulate and struggle social relations, and therefore, our selves. â€Å" and on the other hand Race has no longer been seen as a biological type. The process of human reality has always seen the constructions of race and gender. As a term ‘Gender ‘refers to the social construction of sex. Gender has come to replace†¦show more content†¦While biology may play a part in male and female behaviour society plays an equal stronger role in influencing the extent to which men and women adopt masculine or feminine characteristics. â€Å"The significant of sex and gender in the lives of member of contemporary western societies â€Å"by ( Le Guin ). As these quote indicates that sex plays a critical roles in the life of the individual influencing everything from the way we dress, to what we eat, the kind of things we do, how we behave, what we likely to achieve in our lives. As we know people in United States are more open minded about gender roles today than they were in the past. Women are now allowed to work as lawyers, truck drivers etc where as men today works as nurses and some even stay at home to take care of their children. As we still see that in many society, has the strong ideas of women working in traditionally male dominated field like constructions, are still viewed, which indicates the gender roles in the society. As Mary Gentile book â€Å" How We learn Who We Are â€Å" describes how she too received the message from church, family and school about what it meant to be white, catholic, Itali an and female. Gentile writes that she came to â€Å"experience that the polarities of gender....were inadequate to describe reality â€Å" Perhaps one of the most inspirational example of a gender non conformist who was able to transcend the confines of gender and race is writer and playwright Lorraine Hansberry, who hasShow MoreRelatedTransgender Discrimination1615 Words   |  7 Pageswhich is gender identification not sexual orientation. Transgender are individuals whose gender identities or gender expressions contrast with traditional social norms and expectations. 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When It1584 Words   |  7 Pages Gender Oppression Through the Lense of Racism When it comes to gender oppression, it is important to view it through other systems of oppression because it allows us to understand the many different ways in which individuals or groups experience it and how these other oppressions contribute to gender oppression as well. There are people who suffer because of many systems of oppression, such as racism, poverty, or cissexism. These systems start to intersect, become dependent on each other,Read MoreGender Distinction Between Sex And Gender1469 Words   |  6 Pagesobjectives will be tried to achieve in this paper: 1) Explicate the distinction between sex and gender. 2) I will go through the Sally Haslanger’s argument which supports the distinction, and Rachel Williams’ argument which objects the sex and gender distinction. 3) I will examine that the necessity of having the sex and gender distinction in the society. I suggest that the necessity of having the sex and gender distinction is perspective-sensitive, w hich means that the necessity of having the distinctionRead MoreThe Body And Identity Of Afro Descendant Women1618 Words   |  7 PagesBody identities and transformation: the struggles to belong Stereotypes and negative prejudice related to the body and identity of afro descendant women have generated over dimensionality of their sexuality, affecting their relation with the rest of the population and with afro descendant men. To explain the process of construction of beauty standards, Markowtksy talks about how the hierarchy system can establish different dominance relations. Thus, there has been established relations betweenRead MoreThe Egg And The Sperm1188 Words   |  5 Pagesliterature piece by claiming that culture tends to shape many things in the society including the manner as to how biological scientists illustrate what they know about the scientific world. She goes ahead to explain various scientific details regarding reproductive technologies that confer information as to how gender stereotypes prefer hiding within the scientific language of biology. Martin uses two physical aspects of the human body to support her claims, the female egg, and the male sperm. There isRead MoreThe Topic Of Sexuality1144 Words   |  5 Pagesinequities. Linking into the body of essay (para)- One of the prominent ideas to emerge from research within the feminist movement is the relationship between sexuality and gender (Horrocks. 1997). For example, Horrocks suggests that, â€Å"Heterosexuality seems innately associated with certain notions of ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’, and notions of ‘man’ and ‘woman’ (Horrocks, 1997, p.186) Body- Present a critical discussion regarding: gender roles, sexual orientation and gender identity (essay question)Read MoreThroughout History We Have Seen The Evolution Of How Women1524 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout history we have seen the evolution of how women are perceived by society. We can easily notice how women are striving towards gender equality and how women are gaining more power and respect in society as a whole. In the summer of 2016, â€Å"Vanity Fair† published a controversial photo of transgender, Caitlyn Jenner, officially premiering her new self to the world. The news that the idolized Bruce Jenner had changed switched genders had been buzzing months prior to this publication. As theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Little Mermaid 1688 Words   |  7 Pagesdesire their own form of happiness and success, Ariel’s desire and the lengths she’ll go to acquire love represents a stereotypical society of powerless women who depend on men for their surviv al. As opposed to Ursula, who seeks revenge and the crown of Triton but ultimately fails; her failure demonstrates the power of men that will always dominate over women in the end, but her attempt represents the ambitious women out there that want more than just love. The features and background of Ariel alone

Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Perception of Listening Essay - 1135 Words

The Perception of Listening Listen up! Are you really listening? What is listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. †As with any new skill, learning to listen takes effort, attention, and practice† (Stewart, 2006, p. 202). Listening skills allow people to make sense of and understand what another person is saying. In other words, listening skills allow you to identify with the meaning of what people†¦show more content†¦Since listening plays an essential role in the communication process, developing listening skills are important because they will help interpret what the speaker is saying during feedback. In other words, the listener should be able to re spond to what the speaker talked about for clarification purposes. Accordingly, becoming a better listener, and depending on the situation, there are three types of listening strategies that would be beneficial to ensure effective communication with other people. Hybels and Weaver (2007) states that â€Å"active listening, critical listening, and empathic listening are three different tactics that can be useful in diverse situations† (p. 92).For instance, critical listeners’ focal point is to listen with determination and an open mind. They need to recognize and expect to learn something new from the speaker and ask questions about their viewpoints. Defining Listening Barriers The second aspect of listening is to avoid the barriers to efficient listening. Since words can be influential, there are some issues that may get in the way of listening effectively, such as bias, accents, and noise. These specific matters will result in poor listening communication because there are some people who are collective listeners because of their favoritism toward specific speakers; the language is not clear due to diverse accents, and depending onShow MoreRelatedThe Perception of Listening1162 Words   |  5 PagesThe Perception of Listening Listen up! Are you really listening? What is listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. †As with any new skill, learning to listenRead MoreThe Perception of Listening Essay1756 Words   |  8 PagesThe Perception of Listening Listen up! Are you really listening? What is Listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. †As with any new skill, learning to listenRead MoreThe Perception of Listening Essay1959 Words   |  8 PagesThe Perception of Listening Listen up! Are people really listening? What is listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. †As with any new skill, learning to listenRead MoreThe Perception of Listening Essay examples1399 Words   |  6 Pages What is Listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a knack that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. †As with any new skill, learning to listen takes effort, attention, and practice† (Stewart, 2006, p. 202)Read MoreEssay about The Perception of Listening 1168 Words   |  5 PagesListen up! Are you really listening? What is listening and why is it important? This paper will address the viewpoint of listening skills and its outcome. Listening is an essential tool, which is one of the constructive aspects in the communication process, for communicating with other people. To listen well is a talent that is learned. However, for people to listen effectively, they would need to practice to obtain the skill. †As with any new skill, learning to listen takes effort, attention, andRead MoreEffective Interpersonal Communication1002 Words   |  4 Pagescommunication requires three fundamental skills: being assertive, listening mindfully, and checking perceptions versus reality. Using each of these three skills can help avoid miscommunication and concurrent conflict. Moreover, assertiveness, mindful listening, and checking perceptions all go hand-in-hand. For example, being assertive means speaking mindfully and truthfully which makes it more possible to listen mindfully and truthfully too. Listening mindfully, and communicating mindfully in general, ensuresRead MoreThe Importance Of Intercultural Communication830 Words   |  4 Pagesvariables of listening depend on the different perceptions that a person obtains through their cultural background. Furthermore, culture often affects the structure of consciousness in the act of listening. When a person seeks to listen sincerely, the ability to communicate has more depth and is more natural. (Talks about the difficulties of intercultural communiction) The problem comes (Issues with communicating effectively occur) when people who are listening are not aware of the listening processRead MoreAnalysis Of My Sister, Geyonia, And Me Essay938 Words   |  4 PagesUsing the concepts: Self-concept Emotional display Perception impact Nonverbal behaviors/communication Listening styles Stage of relationship Disclosure styles Communication climates Confirming and disconfirming messages Conflict event and styles Types of resolution I will be relating my week of analysis of the relationship with my sister to the above concepts and explaining the relationship I have with Geyonia. Self-concept is the set of perceptions you have about yourself (emotional states, talentsRead MoreSpeech Is The Major Vehicle Of Human Communication909 Words   |  4 Pagesbetween Hearing, Listening and Perception. Hearing is the sensation of sound. Sounds produced by a source are transmitted through a medium and into the ears of the listener which converts vibrational energy into neural impulses which travel to the brain. Listening is the act of paying attention to the spoken word, not only in hearing symbols but also reacting with understanding. A person with normal hearing sensitivity may have poor listening skills which may result in poor Speech Perception. Unlike hearingRead MoreMusic as an Aesthetic Experience1320 Words   |  6 PagesThe introduction of Donald J. Funes book Musical Involvement addresses the topic of music as an aesthetic experience. The preface to the introduction is the realization that truly listening to music requires an active response, and this type of listening is not innate. All throughout the day we are bombarded with music and every day sounds, most of which remain in our periphery. It can be difficult to focus on a single event such as a concert, lecture or any other situation that requires a quite

Saturday, December 21, 2019

A Career in Medicine Essay - 654 Words

A Career in Medicine nbsp; My experiences at home have helped prepare me for a career in medicine I grew up in an economically depressed area in San Francisco where my mother was a single parent. Growing up without a father, I developed self-confidence and a sense of independence at an early age. In order to help my mother financially, I unloaded produce trucks during my years in high school. As a result, I was unable to enjoy many of the activities most youngsters enjoy. However, I am thankful for the determination and inner-strength I developed while overcoming the hardships I faced. nbsp; After graduating from Lowell High School, I entered the University of California, Berkeley. The topic of nutrition interested me.†¦show more content†¦I felt a need to share the knowledge I was acquiring with others in my community. Therefore, I accepted a position as a chemistry tutor in the Minority Scholars Program. For the past three years, I have taught a preparatory course for incoming freshman in addition to tutoring inorganic and organic chemistry. In my interactions with my students I have served as a role model as well as a teacher. I worked hard to sharpen my students analytical skills, but more importantly, I was able to ease the culture shock that many students felt upon matriculation at Berkeley. nbsp; My two years of work as a volunteer orthopedic technician and emergency room volunteer at San Francisco General Hospital have shown me the rewards of a career in medicine. My duties at SFGH varied from assisting in general emergency room and surgical procedures to assisting in reduction of fractures. In each case, I derived satisfaction from the fact that my actions contributed to the well-being of others. nbsp; In the area where I grew up, there are few accessible positive role models. Unfortunately the youngsters admire the criminals that drive expensive cars. Most youths feel that music, or drugs are the only alternatives available to them. As a practicing black physician in my community, I could serve as a positive role model for these youngsters. I feel well prepared to face the problems that youngShow MoreRelatedThe Career Of Clinical Medicine849 Words   |  4 Pageshad worked in the department of Internal Medicine for several years as clinician, resident, and research scholar, I know that residency training requires absolute commitment to excel in every tier to become an excellent physician and take responsibility to reach out to others in need. A career in clinical medicine has always been my inspiration; however, I chose to avail myself from basic science and translational researches before completing internal medicine residency training in the hope of gainingRead MoreThe Career O f Clinical Medicine868 Words   |  4 PagesAs a candidate who previously had worked in the Department of Internal Medicine for several years as clinician, resident, and research scholar, I am committed to embrace the rigorous challenges and to excel in every tier to become an excellent physician. A career in clinical medicine has always been my inspiration; however, I chose to avail myself from basic science and translational researches before completing residency training in the hope of gaining experience that would make me all rounded,Read MoreChoosing A Career For Medicine778 Words   |  4 Pagescourse of diagnosis. Later on she was also diagnosed with IgA deficiency too, hence the negative Transglutaminase test. Through all this, what fascinated me was how doctors got to connect one clue to another in reaching a diagnosis. Choosing a career in medicine came naturally to me since my father is an anesthesiologist. With my frequent visits to his hospital, I have always been surrounded with doctors. I have witnessed first hand the satisfaction a doctor experiences seeing their patient on the pathRead MoreMedicine As A Career Life773 Words   |  4 PagesBeginning from a young age, I have always considered medicine as a career because I have always enjoyed sciences, and I’ve always wanted to be able to make an impact in people’s lives. However, it was not until 10th grade, when I undertook work experience at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital that it was consolidated. The doctor that I followed had a patient who had previously seen her before about issues with the nerves in his leg. He came to her and told her that he had seen many other doctors beforeRead More A Career in Sports Medicine Essay590 Words   |  3 PagesA Career in Sports Medicine   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As we begin to grow up and come to the end of our high school career we must start to begin to start thinking about what type of career we want to be in.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is very important that a person picks the right type of career for them. Otherwise you will be unhappy with what you are doing and will not enjoy it at all. I am not entirely sure what I want my career to be but I have a pretty good idea as to what type of job it will be. I would like to go intoRead More Veterinary Medicine as a Career Essay653 Words   |  3 PagesVETERINARY MEDICINE AS A CAREER Working with animals has been a dream of mine since childhood. I was raised next door to the town veterinarian, Dr. Murphy. He specialized in farm animals, which my family raised, so he visited our house on a regular basis. He knew I loved to hear stories about his patients and always entertained me, no matter how busy he was. When I was 10, Dr. Murphy gave me a copy of â€Å"All Creatures Great and Small† by James Herriot. The book told the story of a country veterinarianRead MoreMy Career Between Medicine And Mathematics774 Words   |  4 PagesI still remember the struggle to choose my career between medicine and mathematics as I graduated from high school in 2005. While mathematics was my favorite subject, medicine was a highly sought after profession in India. After thorough consideration, I made the decision to pursue medicine for my career. During the fourth year of medical school, I came across a blog titled â€Å"Can Math Cure Cancer?† by Robert Langreth on Forbes.com. Reading the blog, I realized the opportunity to rejuvenate my childhoodRead MoreA Career in The Field of Veterinary Medicine Essay1219 Words   |  5 PagesThere are many areas in the career field of veterinary medicine that there need to be more reach done. This one in particular has numerous counts of stories and little to none reach that been done in this area of field. This area of field in veterinary medicine is the study and the use of adoptive mother. This is not talking about human mothers but animal mothers. These animals that had loss their own babies or good at raising their own babies may help care of other mother’s babies that are inRead MoreEssay on My Decision to be Pursuing a Career in Medicine616 Words   |  3 Pagesinterest in pursuing medicine as a career because I could identify with his discovery of the joy of reading and his fascination with science. When I was 14, I had an epiphany at the doctor’s office. This event occurred a little after I had finished my final exams in school and the next step was to go to senior high school. But, I thought the preliminary chemistry and physics classes of junior high school were daunting and went on to convince myself that a career in medicine might not be right forRead MoreMy Interest Of Medicine As A Field Of Study And Career Essay932 Words   |  4 Pagesinterest in medicine as a field of study and career first sparked in my high school years. During my freshman year, I took advantage of the many new opportunities that the new scene of high school offered. I was eager to join numerous clubs in search of the things that I was that interested me the most. In the years leading up to high school, I did quite well in the sciences and enjoyed the subject more than I though I would. With this developed interest in science, I joined the Health Careers Club. Not

Friday, December 13, 2019

The Hazard of Internet, Cell Phone, and Television Addiction Free Essays

I am a technology addict. When I have my computer connected to the internet, I can forget the time. I am very busy to search any informations through the internet. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hazard of Internet, Cell Phone, and Television Addiction or any similar topic only for you Order Now Beside internet, I also use my cell phone to chat with my friends all day long. One more activity that can make me addicted is spending my time to watch my favorite TV programs. Yeah, those three kinds of technology are very enjoyable. But, I want people to know the potential risk of over using internet, cell phone, and television in the daily life. First of all, those three kinds of technology make us lazy. Take a look when we are too enjoy watching our favorite TV programs, we will postpone our assignments. We will delay them in 5 minutes later, then 5 minute later again, and again, and finally we don’t finish them. Moreover, our time for studying are reduce. We are more interested watching television, browsing through internet, or chatting by phone than study the lesson. When we get assignments from lecturers, we just copy and paste from internet. Once we are too over using those technologies, we will be very wasteful person. for example, If we chat with friends all day long, we will spend so much money to pay phone bills. If we are blogging through the internet, we also have to pay the bandwidth bills. Or maybe, sometimes we don’t turn off the computer or the television until we are fall asleep, so the electric claim will increase. Thus, our monthly expense will uncontrolable. Some studies find that over use of those technologies can create diseaseses. A simple example is if we are sitting in front of the screen for a long time without rest, absolutely we will get stomachache, headache, and back pain. The radiation of television or computer screen are also dangerous for our eyes. Just take a look to me, who has been suffered myopic since I become television addict. Another case is when we are using cell phone, actually, we are potentially get the brain cancer. According to Vini Khurana, one of Britain’s top neurosurgeons, using cell phones for more than 10 years can effectively double risk of developing the cancer, such as Vestibular schwannoma (accoustic neuroma) and Astrocytoma (Karachi, 2008). How terrible they are, aren’t they? No doubt that those three kinds of technology bring big impact in our life. They give us pleasure and happines. So we can very addict of them. But, they will be very dangerous for us, if we can not manage the time to use them. Thus, cosidering the potential risk of them are very important. (an23) How to cite The Hazard of Internet, Cell Phone, and Television Addiction, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Importance of Letters in Pride & Prejudice-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Discuss the Function and Importance of letters inPride and Prejudice. 2.DoesPride and Prejudicereinforce or erode sexist stereotypes of women? 3.Time and space are small inPride and Prejudice. Discuss the significance of critic Dorothy Van Ghents comment on the novels setting. Answers: Introduction Pride and Prejudice is a novel written by Jane Austen in 1813, and it is considered one of her most preferred novels. It is a humorous story of life and love among English gentility. Mr Bennet is an English man living in Hertfordshire with his wife. He has five daughters, Jane Bennet being the eldest one. Unfortunately, after their fathers death, their distant cousin whom they have never met will be inheriting the house. Now, the familys happiness is dependent on the marriage of his five daughters. A rich person Mr Bingley, arrived at their neighbourhood and many tribulations and trials stand between them and their happiness. In the novel, letters are a dramatic device that is used for character revelation, to further the plot and theme exposition. It acted as a mode of communication that helped to convey important information allowing Austen to respond quickly. It is a significant feature as letters were the typical source of communication during the 19th century (Weldon). This epis tolary style was depicted in the novel. It can be stated that letters were used to reveal the characters for the method of introduction and advancement of the novel plot. Therefore, the following discussion involves the highlighting of the function and importance of letters in the novel. 1.Discussion Austen highlighted the function of letters and the way it helped to make connections between the events, personalities and different viewpoints. The immense importance of letters in the novel is indicated by different actions in the plot. The special significance of the novel gives the readers a chance for story narration. The author is not directly narrating the novel plot (Austen-Leigh). Moreover, the main function of the novel is to reveal the contemporary society in the 19th century where letters were important for the communication process. They are also a mean of showing sorrow and happiness and are a way of shaping the characters in the novel. The letters depicted many aspects of people in the novel where they were judgmental before they have known the person. The function of letters was to narrate the novel through letters by one or more characters. Letters served as an advantage as it presented intimate view of the characters and without any interference from the author that helped to shape the events with dramatic immediacy. Letters are defined as epistolary where Austen used them as a function to reveal the characters in the novel of Pride and Prejudice (Gillie). 2.Unravelling of plot The characters speak the story and therefore provide small viewpoints of the happenings. There is only portraying of the characters point of view and not of the author. In total, seven letters helped in unravelling the plot. Mr Collins wrote the first letter announcing his arrival that anticipated his role in the novel. Later, he wrote letters describing how Mr Bennet should behave with Lydia and Darcy engaged to Elizabeth where the author used letters as a plot device. Elizabeth's letter to Mrs Gardiner, her aunt, helped in the revelation of the characters and their relationship in the novel. Darcy also wrote a letter to Elizabeth explaining his past dealings with Wickham. The author avoided dialogue while using letters that helped in providing an important piece of information to the readers. Therefore, this letter-writing event reveals that it played an important role in the furthering of the plot (Murphy). 3.Revelation of character The letters were also used for the revealing characters true image in the novel. It was seen in the two letters written by Mr Collins addressed to Mr Bennet. The reference of Lady Catherine De Bourgh on a constant basis showed his status and pomposity. Consequently, the readers get a picture of Mr Collins social climbing character before he was introduced in the novel (Macpherson). Mr Collins second letter was an apology towards the end of the plot to Mr Bennet. The letter was written when Mr Bennet lost his daughter, Lydia. He also said that it would have been better if she had died instead of eloping for marriage. This act forms a picture that he is a person with high morale and comprises an important theme of pride in the plot. His letters illustrated perfect examples of condescension and pride caricatured through the letters (Srb). Jane letters also helped in furthering the plot as she tells her story about staying in London. Letters helped in revealing her character in the novel and relationship she has with her sisters. The author beautifully condensed Janes stay in London in a succinct manner in the letter (Murphy). The most important letter is from Darcy to Elizabeth. He conveyed his feelings strongly which expresses the theme of prejudice where Elizabeth judged Darcy in a wrong manner. There are other important letters written by Jane to Mr and Mrs Gardiner, her aunt and uncle informing Elizabeth about Lydias elopement with Wickham. Conclusion The above letters in Pride and Prejudice contributed to the narration of the novel. It highlights the time when letters were the main means of communication. The letters provided a chance for narration by the readers instead of the author. The main function of the novel is to reveal the contemporary society in the 19th century where letters were important for the communication process. Letters illustrated drama of expectations that was followed by action being the crucial contributions in the novel. Letters were used to depict the various aspects of the people in the novel. The concept of letters exhibited the two separate audiences in one plot. The reader became the narrator in the plot, as the author is not directly involved in narrating the plot. The author used letters to define the events in the novel and revelation of characters while furthering the plot (Ross and Webb). References Austen-Leigh, Mary Augusta.Personal Aspects of Jane Austen. Cambridge University Press, 2013. Gillie, Christopher.A Preface to Jane Austen: Revised Edition. Routledge, 2014. Murphy, Olivia. "Jane Austens Excellent Walker: Pride, Prejudice, and Pedestrianism."Eighteenth-Century Fiction26.1 (2013): 121-142. Murphy, Olivia.Jane Austen the Reader: The Artist as Critic. Springer, 2013. Ross, Josephine, and Henrietta Webb.Jane Austen's Guide to Good Manners: Compliments, Charades and Horrible Blunders. AC Black, 2012. Srb, Marie N.Irony and Idyll: Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice and Mansfield Park on Screen. Vol. 203. Rodopi, 2014. Van Ostade, Ingrid Tieken-Boon.In search of Jane Austen: The language of the letters. Oxford University Press, 2014. Weldon, Fay.Letters to Alice: On First Reading Jane Austen. Open Road Media, 2013.